I assign static IP to every possible device on my network. Than I make queues where I put on two first places my notebook and my mobile phone. So this devices have unlimited upload and download and priority set to 1. Other devices have upload and download limited to ADSL maximum limits, priority 8 and "Limit at" set to minimum bandwidth if I will be active on my devices. Is it correct? Because I think, that this solution doesn't work.
If you didn't specify a limit-at for your priority 1 queues, then this isn't going to behave the way you want.
Priority is actually more of a tie-breaker with queues. Limit-at is actually a guaranteed minimum bandwidth that is reserved for that queue. If a queue is using less than this, it will receive priority over other queues above their limit-at rates, even if it is priority 8 and the other queues are priority 1.
Basically, all guarantees are met before priorities are considered.
You should either add limit-at guarantees to your high priority queues or else remove all guaranteed minimums and let the priorities fight it out. (of course, in this model, you can hog 100% of the bandwidth and leave none for the kids)
I'd suggest that instead of a queue for each person, create a priority queue and a non-priority queue and set each one up as a PCQ type of queue, and guarantee 50% to the high priority queue, and 50% to the low priority queue.
PCQ will then enforce fair sharing by the devices which are using that queue.