Good morning sir,
the independent-learning you found on vlan configuration is a VLAN learning approach as stated by the IEEE 802.1ad standard. Just to know it's shorted as IVL.
When brdiges learn mac address on the switch ports looking on src mac address, they can store this informations on a shared Database used by every VLAN (shared vlan learning) or can store this information separate databases mapped to each separate VLAN (independant VLAN learning).
So basically you have the possibility to share the mac address<---> switch ports informations among different VLAN (one common db ) or you decide to not share this informations (independent vlan db).
A possible benefit using IVL (independant learning) is that you could have the same mac-adress occurring on different vlans , and this wil not raise any conflict issue
Hoping this will help to clarify the concept.
Have a nice day
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MTCNA / MTCRE certified Senior Mikrotik Consultant